1. The documents of the Second Vatican Council as well as the texts written by John Paul II are quoted from the official
2. Cf. Robert Skrzypczak, Karol Wojtyla na Soborze Watykariskim II. Zbior wystapien (
, 2011), 70-71. Warsaw
3. Angelo Scola, L'esperienza elementare. La vena profonda
magistero di Giovanni Paolo II ( del ,
2003), 111. Milan
4. Cf. Acta et Documenta Concilio Oecumenico Vaticano II Apparando. Series prima (Antepraeparatoria), vol. 2, pars II (Vatican City, 1960), 741-48.
5. George Weigel, Witness to Hope: The Biography of Pope John Paul II (New York, 1999), 159.
6. Acta et Documenta Concilio Oecumenico Vaticano II Apparando. Series prima (Antepraeparatoria), vol. 2, pars II (Vatican City, 1960), 742.
8. For example, when Bishop Wojtyla writes about the laity in the Church, he points out that "in pastoral care the laity cannot be treated only as an object, they should be considered also as 'a cooperating subject'" (ibid., 744). The condition for this consideration of the laity in the Church as "subject" is that "the clergy have gained a fuller knowledge of the entire life of the laity and its value, both natural and supernatural" (ibid.). The old patriarchy and patronizing attitude of the clergy toward the laity should be replaced by the adoption of the "spiritual fatherhood of priests toward the laity" (ibid.). Searching not for what divides, but for what unites, should be characteristic of the entire Catholic ecclesiology (cf. ibid.).
9. Cf. Acta Synodalia Sacrosancti Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani II (Vatican City, 1971), vol. I, pars IV, 598-99 (hereafter cited as AS I, IV); AS II, III, 154-57; II, III, 856-57; II, IV, 340-42; III, I, 613-17; III, II, 178-79; III, IV, 69-70; III, IV, 788-89.
10. Cf. AS III, II, 530-32; III, III, 766-68; IV, II, 11-13; IV, II, 292-93.
11. Cf. AS III, V, 298-300; III, V, 680-83; IV, II, 660-63; IV, III, 242-43; IV, III, 349-50.
12. Rocco Buttiglione, Karol Wojtyla: The Thought of the Man Who Became Pope John Paul II (Grand Rapids, 1997), 177-232.
13 John Paul II, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (New York, 1995), 158.
14. Weigel. Witness to
15. One might object that 1950 saw the publication of Wojtyla's doctoral dissertation on the theological virtue of faith in
of the Cross and a series of articles based on this publication. This is true.
However, I would still hold that the first significant theological publication
of Karol Wojtyla, as opposed to his doctoral work, was his post-conciliar book The
Sources of Renewal, published in 1972. St. John
16. Not counting two years of study in
after the Second World War and short visits to Rome and Belgium . France
17. Cf. Skrzypczak, Karol Wojtyla na Soborze Watykariskim II., 102.
18. As we know, significant parts of what later became known as John Paul II's Wednesday Catecheses on the theology of the body were written by Cardinal Wojtyla in
starting as early as 1976.
19. The Polish philosopher Marian Grabowski calls the method used in John Paul II's theology of the body "philosophical exegesis" and describes it as "a translation of biblical images into philosophical terms and biblical narration into philosophical narration" (cf. Marian Grabowski, W strone antropologii adekwatnej, in O antropologii Jana Pawla II, ed. Marian Grabowski [Torun, 2004], 20).
20. Wanda Poltawska, Beskidzkie rekolekcje. Dzieje przyjazni ksiedza Karola Wojtyly (
2008), 294. Czestochowa
21. Joseph Ratzinger, Called to Communion: Understanding the Church Today (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996), 77—83.
22. Cf. AS I, IV, 599; II, III, 857. In his illuminating book, Boguslaw Kochaniewicz points out how John Paul II's Mariology is an original and creative development of the Mariology presented in Lumen gentium (cf. Boguslaw Kochaniewicz, Wybrane zagadnienia z mariologii Jana Pawla II [Niepokalanow, 2007]).
23. Cf. Vittorio Possenti, Rewolucja Ducha. Doktryna spoleczna Kosciola widziana oczyma kardynala Karola Wojtyly (
, 2007), 99. Warsaw
24. The pope's message for World Communications Day is traditionally published in conjunction with the Memorial of St. Francis de Sales, patron of writers, which falls on 24 January.
25. Cf. Skrzypczak, Karol Wojtyla na Soborze Watykariskim II, 171—72. The term "coincidentia oppositorum' comes from Nicholas of Cusa's fifteenth-century treatise De docta ignorantia where the author holds that the true knowledge of God unites and reconciles what seems to be opposite and irreconcilable. In the modern philosophy of religion, the term has been used widely by Mircea Eliade and others. An interesting meaning for this term can be found in the interpretation of the uniqueness of Catholicism as laid out by Carl Schmitt, a well-known German political philosopher: "There appears to be no antithesis it [Roman Catholicism] does not embrace. It has long and proudly claimed to have united within itself all forms of state and government. . . . But this complexio oppositorum also holds sway over everything theological" (Carl Schmitt, Roman Catholicism and Political Form [Westport, 1996], 7).
26. Skrzypczak, Karol Wojtyla na Soborze Watykariskim II, 172
27. Cf. Leonhard Goppelt, tuttoc;, in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Gerhard Kittel (Grand Rapids, 1972), vol. 8, 246-47.
28. In order to show the greatness of Christ's work of salvation, Paul uses the argumentation a minori ad maius: if the sin of Adam brought such disastrous effects, the redemptive act of Jesus will have far more reaching and enduring positive consequences (cf. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Romans. A New Translation with Introduction ™A Commentary [
, 1992], 406). New
29. Cf. Tracy Rowland, Culture and the Thomist Tradition: After
Vatican II ( , 2003). London
30. The author reminds the Corinthians of the Israelites' way through the desert and of the fact that despite the great spiritual gifts that they were given ("all passed through the sea" and were led by the cloud , they drank water from the rock [3—4]), "they were struck down in the wilderness" (5) because God was not pleased with them. Summarizing his warning, the author writes: "these things occurred as examples (
tuteou) for us, so
that we might not desire evil as they did" (6). Further on, the author
continues his reflection about the Israelites' escape from Egypt and their way
through the desert and writes again: "These things happened to them to
serve as an example ( tvmiKCp),
and they were written down to instruct us, on whom the ends of the ages have
31. Cf. William F. Orr and James Arthur Walther, 1 Corinthians: A New Translation with a Study of the Life of Paul, Notes and Commentary (New York, 1976), 205-355.
32. Cf. Louis Bouyer, The Eternal Son: The Theology of the Word of God and Christology (
33. Cf. George Weigel, Soul of the World: Notes on the Future of Public Catholicism (Grand Rapids, 1996).
34. The conciliar theology of the signs of the times (signa temporum) points this out (cf. Paul Valadier, "Signes de temps, signes de Dieu?" Etudes 9 : 261-81).
35. Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, ST I-II, q. 6; II-II, q. 2-4.
36. Quoted in Skrzypczak, Karol Wojtyla na Soborze Watykariskim II., 14.
This paper was delivered at the conference, '"Keeping the World Awake to God': The Challenge of Vatican II," held at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., 12-14 January 2012.